In the 1930s under the guidance of renowned scientists E.S. Rubinstein, O.A. Drozdova, T. V. Pokrovskaya, work began on the development of scientific principles for constructing a meteorological network of Soviet Russia. In accordance with these principles, the concepts of a “primary” and “ad hoc” network of meteorological stations were introduced. The first was intended to obtain information about the meteorological regime of the territory as a whole, the second - to clarify the meteorological regime of specific points located in special conditions.
A characteristic feature of the modern meteorological network is the complexity of observations: that is, the production at meteorological stations of other types of observations - actinometric, heat balance, aerological, agrometeorological, marine hydrometeorological, as well as observations of total ozone, evaporation, chemical composition of precipitation and snow cover, natural radioactive environment.